Sunday, 17 January 2021

Plant Nursery and Gardening 2020-21



Affiliated to Krishna University




Course code: 20SDCNG2                                                                Total 30hrs (02h/wk),

Credits: 02                                                                                         Max Marks:50



A nursery is a place where small plants and seedlings are grown and nurtured in an open environment which maintains a good quality of plants and protect the plants from pests and diseases.


Gardening involves an active participation in the growing of plants, and tends to be labor-intensive, which differentiates it from farming or forestry. Organic growing demands good practice in soil and water management, and so provides an opportunity to demonstrate sound horticultural understanding. Organic growing uses about ¼ less energy than conventional methods.


Learning Outcomes:

On successful completion of this course students will be able to:

1.      To promote skill development at individual level.

2.      Understand the importance of a plant nursery and basic infrastructure to establish it.

3.      Explain the basic material, tools and techniques required for nursery.

4.      Demonstrate expertise related to various practices in a nursery and gardening.

5.      Comprehend knowledge and skills to get an employment or to become an entrepreneur in plant nursery sector and different gardening methods.



Unit-1: Introduction to plant nursery                                                         05 Hrs.

1.       Plant nursery: Definition and importance.

2.       Different types of nurseries –on the basis of duration, plants produced structure used.

3.       Basic facilities for a nursery; layout and components of a good nursery.

4.       Nursery beds – types and precautions to be taken during preparation.


Unit- 2: Necessities and Management of nursery                                                                      05 Hrs.


1.       Growing media, nursery tools and implements, and containers for plant nursery, in brief.

2.       Outlines of vegetative propagation techniques to produce planting material.

3.       Sowing methods of seeds and planting material.

4.       Nursery management – watering, weeding and nutrients; pests and diseases.

5.   Common possible errors in nursery activities.


Unit-3: Gardening techniques                                                                      05 Hrs.


1.       Types of Garden, Kitchen Garden, Terrace garden, Bonsai in Brief

2.        Importance of manure, Organic compost and Hydroponics

3.       Cultivation Procedure of leafy vegetables and different vegetables like ladies’ finger, brinjal, tomatoes and chillies

4.       Cultivation of important flowers (Dahlia, Marigold and Rose).

5.       Storaging and Marketing procedure of Cultivated vegetables.


Practical Oriented Skill Enhancement activities                                                                                        15 Hrs.

1.       Assignments/Group discussion/Quiz/Model Exam.

2.       Demonstration of nursery bed making.

3.       Hands on training on vegetative propagation techniques.

4.       Hands on training on sowing methods of seeds and vegetables.

5.       Invited lecture cum demonstration by local expert.

6.       Watching videos on routine practices in plant nurseries.

7.       Visit to a horticulture /forest /nursery unit.

8.       Case study on establishment and success of a plant nursery, terrace garden and Bonsai plants.


Suggested text books/reference books:


1.       Ratha Krishnan, M., (2014) Plant nursery management: Principles and practices, Central Arid Zone Research Institute (ICAR), Jodhpur, Rjasthan.


2.       Kumar, N., (1997) Introduction to Horticulture, Rajalakshmi Publications, Nagercoil.


3.       Kumar Mishra, K., N.K. Mishra and Satish Chand (1994) Plant Propagation, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.

SEM-I syllabus 2021 for deans



(Affiliated to Krishna University, Machilipatnam)



Subject: Botany                                                                                       Semester: I

Course Title: Fundamentals of Microbes and               Course Code: 20BTCCMN14

 Nonvascular Plants


No. of Hours: 60                                         LTP: 402                                   Credits: 4


  1. To Understand the Structure, Reproduction, Classification and Economic importance of Microbes, Algae, Fungi and Bryophytes.
  2. To provide hands on training for cultivation of mushrooms.
  3. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the biofertilizer in agriculture.

Course Outcomes:

On successful completion of this course, the students will be able to:

CO1. Explain origin of life on the earth.

CO-2. Illustrate diversity among the viruses and prokaryotic organisms and can categorize   them.

CO-3. Classify fungi, lichens, algae and bryophytes based on their structure, reproduction and life cycles.

CO-4. Able to understand prospects and cultivation of edible mushrooms.

CO-5. Distinguish the use of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers.

 Elaborate the general characters and evolutionary aspects in bryophyta.

CO-6. Analyze and ascertain the plant disease symptoms due to viruses, bacteria and fungi.

CO-7. Recall and explain the evolutionary trends among amphibians of the plant kingdom for their shift to land habitat.


CO-8. Evaluate the ecological and economic value of microbes, thallophytes and bryophytes.


UNIT – I: ORIGIN OF LIFE AND VIRUSES                                                        (12Hrs)

1. Origin of life, concept of primary Abiogenesis; Five kingdom classification of R.H. Whittaker

2. Discovery of microorganisms, Pasteur experiments, germ theory of diseases.

3. Shape and symmetry of viruses; structure of TMV, Multiplication of TMV; A brief account of Prions and Viroids.

4. A general account on symptoms of plant diseases caused by Viruses. Transmission of plant viruses and their control.

5. Significance of viruses in vaccine production, bio-pesticides and as cloning vectors.



1. Brief account of Archaebacteria and Actinomycetes.

2. Cell structure and nutrition of Eubacteria, Reproduction- Asexual (Binary fission and endospores) and bacterial recombination (Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction).

3. Economic importance of Bacteria with reference to their role in Agriculture and industry (fermentation and medicine).

4. A general account on symptoms of plant diseases caused by Bacteria; Citrus canker.

5. Biofertilizers: General account of the microbes used as biofertilizers, Rhizobium-Isolation, Identification and mass multiplication. Cyanobacteria, Azolla, Anabaena association and role of Azolla in agriculture.


UNIT – III: FUNGI & LICHENS                                                                             (12 Hrs)

1. General characteristics of fungi and Ainsworth classification (Upto classes).

2. Structure, reproduction and life history of (a) Rhizopus (Zygomycota) and (b) Puccinia (Basidiomycota).

3. Economic uses of fungi in food industry, pharmacy and agriculture.

4. A general account on symptoms of plant diseases caused by Fungi; Blast of Rice.

5. Lichens- structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance.


UNIT – IV: ALGAE                                                                                                  (12 Hrs)

1. General characteristics of Algae (pigments, flagella and reserve food material); Fritsch classification (Upto classes), Thallus organization in Algae.

2. Occurrence, structure, reproduction and life cycle of (a) Spirogyra (Chlorophyceae) and (b) Polysiphonia (Rhodophyceae).

3. Algal blooms, eutrophication and biomagnification (From local water bodies). Algae as food, Medicine, feed, biofuel and indicators of pollution.


UNIT – V: BRYOPHYTES                                                                                     (12 Hrs)

1. General characteristics of Bryophytes; classification upto classes.

2. Occurrence, morphology, anatomy, reproduction (developmental details are not needed) and life cycle of (a) Marchantia (Hepaticopsida) and (b) Funaria (Bryopsida). General account on evolution of sporophytes in Bryophyta. 



Prescribed Text books:

       Botany – I (Vriksha Sastram-I) : Telugu Akademi, Hyderabad.

       Pandey, B.P. (2013) College Botany, Volume-I, S. Chand Publishing, New Delhi.

       Hait, G., K. Bhattacharya & A.K. Ghosh (2011) A Text Book of Botany, Volume-I, New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata.

       Bhattacharjee, R.N., (2017) Introduction to Microbiology and Microbial Diversity, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.


Books for Reference:

       Dubey, R.C. & D.K. Maheswari (2013) A TextBook of Microbiology, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.


       Pelczar Jr., M.J., E.C.N. Chan & N.R. Krieg (2001) Microbiology, Tata Mc Graw Hill Co, New Delhi.


       Presscott, L. Harley, J. and Klein, D. (2005) Microbiology, 6th edition, Tata McGraw –Hill Co. New Delhi.


       Alexopoulos, C.J., C. W. Mims & M. Blackwell (2007) Introductory Mycology, Wiley& Sons, Inc., New York.


       Mehrotra, R.S. & K. R. Aneja (1990) An Introduction to Mycology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.


       Kevin Kavanagh (2005) Fungi; Biology and Applications John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England.


       John Webster & R. W. S. Weber (2007) Introduction to Fungi, Cambridge University Press, New York.


       Fritsch, F.E. (1945) The Structure & Reproduction of Algae (Vol. I & Vol. II) Cambridge University Press Cambridge, U.K.


       Bold, H.C. & M. J. Wynne (1984) Introduction to the Algae, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.


       Robert Edward Lee (2008) Phycology. Cambridge University Press, New York.


       Van Den Hoek, C., D.G. Mann & H.M. Jahns (1996) Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, New York.


       Shaw, A.J.&B. Goffinet (2000) Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

























(Affiliated to Krishna University, Machilipatnam)


Subject: Botany                                                                             Semester: I

Course Title: Fundamentals of Microbes

and Nonvascular Plants                                       Course Code: 20BTP111


No. of Hours: 30                                                                                         Credits: 1

Course Outcomes:

On successful completion of this practical course, student shall be able to;

1. Demonstrate the techniques of use of lab equipment, preparing slides and identify the material and draw diagrams exactly as it appears.

2. Observe and identify microbes and lower groups of plants on their own.

3. Demonstrate the techniques of inoculation, preparation of media etc.

4. Identify the material in the permanent slides etc.

Experiment details:

1. Knowledge of Microbiology laboratory practices and safety rules.

2. Knowledge of different equipment for Microbiology laboratory (Spirit lamp, Inoculation loop, Hot-air oven, Autoclave/Pressure cooker, Laminar air flow chamber and Incubator) and their working principles.

3. Demonstration of Gram’s staining technique for Bacteria.

4. Study of Viruses (Corona, Gemini and TMV) using electron micrographs/ models.

5. Study of Archaebacteria and Actinomycetes using permanent slides/ electron micrographs/diagrams.

6. Study of Anabaena and Oscillatoria using permanent/temporary slides.

7. Study of different bacteria (Cocci, Bacillus, Vibrio and Spirillum) using permanent or temporary slides/ electron micrographs/ diagrams.

8. Study/ microscopic observation of vegetative, sectional/anatomical and reproductive structures of the following using temporary or permanent slides/ specimens/ mounts:

a. Fungi: Rhizopus and Puccinia

b. Lichens: Crustose, foliose and fruticose

c. Algae, Spirogyra and Polysiphonia

d. Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (Slides)

9. Study of specimens of Tobacco mosaic disease, Citrus canker and Blast of Rice.

10. Visit to biofertilizer units in proximity.