Pages

Pages

Syllabus


MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE
                                                      VIJAYAWADA-8     
                                                           2019- 2020                                            




2019-20


Botany
1
BOTC032
Microbial Diversity, Algae & Fungi
I
3

2
BOTC040
Diversity of Archegoniate & Plant Anatomy
II
3

3
BOTC056
Plant Taxonomy & Embryology
III
3

4
BOTC038
Plant Physiology & Metabolism
IV
3

5
BOTC042
Cell Biology, Genetics & Plant Breeding
V
3

6
BOTC043
Plant Ecology & Phytogeography
V
3
GE
7
BOTC046
Organic Farming & Sustainable Agriculture
VI
3
GE
8
BOTC047
Nursery, Gardening & Floriculture
VI
3
CE
9
BOTC048
Plant Diversity & Human Welfare
VI
3
CE
10
BOTC049
Ethnobotany & Medicinal Botany
VI
3
CE
11
BOTC050
Pharmacognosy & Photochemistry
VI
3

12
BOTC033
Practical - I
I
2

13
BOTC041
Practical - II
II
2

14
BOTC057
Practical - III
III
2

15
BOTC039
Practical - IV
IV
2

16
BOTC044
Practical - V
V
2

17
BOTC045
Practical - VI
V
2

18
BOTC051
Practical - VII
VI
2

19
BOTC052
Practical - VII
VI
2

20
BOTC053
Practical - VIII
VI
2

21
BOTC054
Practical - IX
VI
2

22
BOTC055
Practical - X
VI
2

  

MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE
                                                  VIJAYAWADA-8     
                                                    2019- 2020                                             
                              I B.Sc. –BOTANY SYLLABUS
                              PAPER-I: SEMESTER-I (BOTCO32)
                           MICROBIAL DIVERSITY, ALGAE AND FUNGI
                            Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week


      Course Outcomes

·         CO1: Understand  the nature and role of Microorganisms like Bacteria & Viruses their uses directly and indirectly 
·         CO2: Structure, Organization, Physiology, Reproduction & Economic importance of aquatic, autotrophic forms – Algae.
·         CO3 : Understand about non chlorophylous, Heterotrophic forms – Fungi.
·         CO4Devise short write ups about microbial diversity using additional OE resources available in the internet using modern ICT tools
·         CO5 : Know about microorganisms, types, Algae & Fungi in the practical lab by the observation of specimens & slides.

60 hrs
UNIT-I:
ORIGIN OF LIFE ANDMICROBIAL DIVERSITY
                                                                                                               22hrs
                                                  
1. Origin of Life-Theories
2. Microbialdiversity-Mycoplasmas,Chlamydia,Archaebacteria,Actinomycetes
3. Viruses :Generalaccount of viruses,structure,replication and transmission of plant diseases caused by viruses(TMV).( viroid’s and Prions)
4.Bacteria:structure.nutrition,reproduction and economic importance. Outlineof plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria(Citrus canker) and their control.

UNIT-II:
CYANOBACTERIA AND LICHENS                                                      12hrs
1.Cyanobacteria :General characters ,cell structure,and their uses as Biofertilizers.
2.Structure and reproduction and life history of Nostoc and Scytonema.
3.Lichens-Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction,Economic importance.


  
UNIT-III:

ALGAE    
                                                                                                                       14hrs
                                                                                             1.Generalaccount,thallusorganization,structure,reproduction,Fritch classification of algae
 and economic importance.
2. Structure, reproduction, life history of Oedogonium,Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia.


UNIT-IV:FUNGI                                                                                                             12hrs
1.General characters ,classification(Alexopolous) and economic importance.
2.Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo,Penicillium,Puccinia.
3.General account of plant diseses caused by fungi(Tikka disease of groundnut) and
their control.



    Suggested Readings:

·         Pandey,B.P 2007.Botany for Degree students:Diversity of microbes,Cryptogams,Cellbiology and Genetics.S.Chand& company Ltd,New Delhi.
·         Thakur,A.K. and S.K.Bassi.2008,A text bookof Botany:Diversity of microbes and Cryptogams.S.Chand & company Ltd,New Delhi.
·         Pandey,B.P 2001.College Botany Vol.1:Algae,Fungi,Lichens,Bacteria,
Viruses,Plant pathology,Industrial Microbiology and Bryophyta.S.Chand& company Ltd,New Delhi.
·         Vashishta,B.R.,A.K.Sinha and V.P.Singh.2008.Botany for Degree Students:
Algae.S.Chand & company Ltd,New Delhi.
·         Alexopolous,J.and W.M Charles.1988 Introduction to Mycology.Wiley Eastern,New delhi.Ananthanarayan & Panikers;Microbiology 9th edition.
·         Vashishta,B.R.1990.Botany for Degree Students: Fungi.S.Chand & company Ltd ,New Delhi.
·         Plant Diseases-R.S.Singh.




MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE VIJAYAWADA-8       

                                                        I-B.Sc BOTANY (BOTCO33)

                               PRACTICAL SYLLABUS: PAPER-I SEMESTER-I
Paper-I-IP: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY,ALGAE AND FUNGI
Total hours of laboratory Exercises 45hrs@3per week




1.      Knowledge of equipment used in microbiology:  spirit lamp inoculation loop hot air oven
Autoclave/pressure cooker laminar air flow chamber incubator,etc.
2.      Preparation of solid &liquid media for culturing of microbes(demonstration).
3.      Study of viruses & bacteria using electron micro photographs.
4.      Gram staining of bacteria.
5.      Study of plant disease symptoms  caused by bacteria(citrus canker,angular leaf spot of cotton), viruses(TMV,Vein clearing of Bhendi)& Fungi(Red rot of sugarcane, paddy blast tikka disease of ground nut).
6.      Vegetative & Reproductive structures of the following -:
a.       Algae: Oedogonium, Vaucheria,Ectocarpus,Polysiphonia,Nostoc and Scytonema.
b.      Fungi:Albugo,Pencillium and Puccinia.
7.      Section cutting of diseased  material infected by Fungi and identification of pathogens as per theory syllabus.
8.      Lichens: Different types of  Thalli and Anatomy.
9.      Enumeration and examination of important microbial,Algal and Fungal products. Biofertillizers ,SCP.
10.  Field visit.



MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE VIJAYAWADA-8                                -                          I B.Sc             BOTANY SYLLABUS
                   PAPER-I SEMESTER-II (BOTCO40)
    PAPER-I-II: Diversity of Archegoniate & Plant Anatomy
Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week

    Course Outcomes       

     CO1: Learn about Bryophytes in which the plant body contains
                         Thalloid or leafy structures
     CO2: Learn about the highest group of vascular cryptograms&1st land
                            Plants (Pteridophytes).
     CO3: Study  about the naked seed producing plants(naked seeded
                              Plants of flowering plants) Gymnosperms.
      CO4: Outline about a group of higher cryptograms and gymnosperms  
                using additional OE resources available in the internet using    
                modern ICT tools           
      CO5 :Learn about Internal structure of Plants.                                          



60 hrs
UNIT-I:BRYOPHYTA                                                           (14hrs)

1.      Bryophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Marchantia and Funaria.
3.     Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.
UNIT-II:PTERIDOPHYTA                                                   (24hrs)

1.      Pteridophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Rhynia,Lycopodium and Marsilea.
3.      Heterospory and seed habit.
4.      Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes.

UNIT-III:GYMNOSPERMS                                                 (12hrs)

1.      Gymnosperms: General characters and classification(upto classes).
2.     Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction and  E conomic importance of Resins, oils and Medicines and  Life history of Pinus and Gnetum.

  UNIT – IV:  ANATOMY
1.      Tissues –      Meristematic and Permanent tissues(Simple,Complex,
                       Secretory)
2.      Meristems - Types, Histologyorganisations of shoot and root apices and
                       Theories.
3.      Tissues systems – Epidermal, Ground, Vascular
4.      Normal Secondary Growth and Anamolous Secondary growth-
Achyranthus, Boerhavvia, Dracena.
5.      Wood structure – General account, study of local timbers-
Teak , Rose wood, Redsanders& Arjuna ( Tella maddi).
                
Suggested Readings:    
1.
College Botany Vol  I & II- B.P.Pandey
2.
P.C. Vashishta – Pteridophyta
3.
B.P.Pandey – Gymnosperms
4.
P.C. Vashishta – Gymnosperms
5.
K.R. Sporne - Morphology of Gymnosperms
6.
B.R. Vashishta – Bryophyta
7.
Gangulee & Kar - College Botany Vol II
8.
Rashid  - An Introduction to Pteridophytes
9.
B.R.C.Murthy& Ramakrishna - Common core Botany Iyr& IIyrs



                 MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE VIJAYAWADA-8     

I-B.Sc BOTANY (BOTCO41)

PRACTICAL SYLLABUS:PAPER-I SEMESTER-II
Paper-IIP:Bryophyta,Pteridophyta,Gymnosperms&Plant Anatomy
Total hours of laboratory Exercises 48hrs@3per week



1.      Morphology(Vegetative and reproductive structutres),anatomy of the following taxa.
1.Bryophyta:
a) Marchantia,
b) Funaria


2.      Pteridophyta:
a)      Lycopodium,
b)      Marsilea

3.      Gymnosperms:
a)      Pinus,
b)      Gnetum
c)      Fossil Gymnopsperms/Photographs.
4.      Anatomy (slides & section cutting)
Collection of materials like Marsilea sporocarp, Pinus needles, Cones 9male & female) study of pinus pollen grains, collection of locally available useful timber



  
           MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE  VIJAYAWADA                                                               
  
II B.Sc         SEMESTER –III:   BOTANY THEORY PAPER –  III Paper 
                             Plant Taxonomy and Embryology  (BOTC056)

                      Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week
Course Outcomes

Co1 Outline the concepts of Taxonomy with Identification, Nomenclature and various classification of plants.
Co2 Understand the reproduction of plants, Haploid male and female gametes, fertilization of Zygote and embryo formation, embryo development and endosperm.
 Co3 Observe and identify structures of plants
  using additional OE resources available in the internet using modern ICT tools.

UNIT – I: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY                       (12 hrs)
  1. Fundamental components of taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification)
  2. Taxonomic resources: Herbarium- functions & important herbaria, Botanical gardens,      Flora, .
3. Botanical Nomenclature- Principles and rules of ICBN (ranks and names; principle of priority, binomial system; type method, author citation, valid-publication).

UNIT – II: CLASSIFICATION (12 hrs)
 1. Types of classification- Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
 2. Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification- merits and demerits.
 3. Engler and Prantle’s system of classification- merits and demerits
 4. Phylogeny – origin and evolution of Angiosperms

UNIT –III: SYSTEMATIC TAXONOMY-I (18 hrs)
 1. Systematic study and economic importance of the following families: Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae.
Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Arecaceae, and Poaceae.

UNIT – V: EMBRYOLOGY (18 hrs)

1. Anther structure, Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.
 2. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis, development of Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic types (Peperomia, Drusa, Adoxa) of embryo sacs. 
3. Pollination and Fertilization (outlines) Endosperm development and types. 
4. Development of Dicot and Monocot embryos, Polyembryony.



Suggested activity: Collection of locally available plants of medicinal importance,
 observing pollen grains in honey, Aero-palynology - collection of pollen from air using
 glycerin strips in different seasons. 





 Books for Reference

1. Porter, C.L. ( ): Taxonomy of flowering Plants, Eurasia Publishing House, New Delhi.

2. Lawrence, G.H.M. (1953): Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, Oxford & IBH Publishers, New Delhi, Calcutta.
 3. Jefferey, C. (1968) : An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy J.A. Churchill, London.
 4. Mathur, R.C. (1970) : Systematic Botany (Angiosperms) Agra Book Stores-

 5. Maheswari, P (1963) : Recent Advances in the Embryology of Angiosperms (Ed., ) International Society of Plant Morphologists- University of Delhi.
 6. Swamy, B.G.L. and Krishnamoorthy. K.V. (1980): From flower to fruit

 7.. Maheswari, P.(1985): An Introduction to the Embryology  

 8.   Bhojawani and Bhatnagar-Text book of Embryology
  



MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS)
VIJAYAWADA-8
                          II B.Sc. BOTANY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS
                          Practical Paper –III   Semester – III

SEMESTER-III BOTANY PRACTICAL –Plant Taxonomy and Embryology (BOTC057)
                 Total hours of laboratory Exercises 30 hrs @ 2 per week 

 Suggested Laboratory Exercises

1. Systematic study of locally available plants belonging to the families prescribed in .  theory syllabus.
 2. Demonstration of herbarium techniques
 3. Structure of pollen grains using whole mounts [Catharanthus, Hibiscus, Acacia, Grass (Typha, Cyperus)].
 4. Demonstration of pollen viability test using in - vitro germination (Catharanthus).
 5. Study of ovule types and developmental stages of embryo sac using permanent slides /Photographs.
 Demonstration of polyembryony in Citrus.
 6. Structure of endosperm (nuclear and cellular); Developmental stages of dicot and monocot Embryos using permanent slides /Photographs
 7. Isolation and mounting of embryo (using Symopsis / Senna / Crotalaria)
 8. Field visits
 9. Preparation and submission of 30 herbarium specimens for evaluation during practical Examination.



  MARIS STELLA COLLEGE(AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                                    II B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS
                                   SEMESTER- IV THEORY (BOTCO38)
                        Paper IV: Plant Physiology and Metabolism
                   Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week
Course Outcomes

CO1: Learn- Plant physiology  a sub discipline of Botany concerned  with functional aspects  of plants,it includes study of all internal metabolic activities of plants.
 CO2:  Learn about the scientific study and pattern of life
Co3 Understand Photosynthesis & Respiration process.&its metabolic process of the
              Plants during practicals.
Co4 Explain the growth and development of plants using additional OE resources available in the internet using modern ICT tools.

.
  UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations      (12hrs)
1.Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water,
2. Diffusion, Imbibition and osmosis, concept of water potential and its components.
3. Absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap
4. Transpiration – types, stomata structure and movements.

UNIT –II: Mineral nutrition Fertilizers,Enzymes       (12hrs)
1. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role, mineral uptake (active and passive), deficiency symptoms
2.. Nitrogen cycle- biological nitrogen fixation
3. Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action.

UNIT –III: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (16hrs)
1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect, concept of two  photo systems, mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen, Photophosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM. Photorespiration.
2. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.


UNIT –IV: PLANT METABOLISM (10 hrs)
1.Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.
2. Lipid Metabolism: Structure and functions of lipids, conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, Beta-oxidation.
3.ATP-Synthesis; Mechanism of ATP synthesis, substrate level phosphorylation,
chemiosmotic mechanism (oxidative and photophosphorylation), ATP
synthase.





GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (10hrs)
1.Growth and development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth, Physiological effects of Phyto hormones - Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene
2. Physiology of flowering and photo periodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
3. Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water, salt and temperature stresses.




Suggested Readings:

1.      Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Ecology &  Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi

2.      Salisbury,F.B. & C.W.Ross.1992. Plant Physiology (2nd Ed.). Sinauer Assiciates, Inc., Publishers, Massachusetts, USA.

3.      V.K.Jain S.Chand & Company: Fundamentals of Physiology

4.      H.N.Srivastava. Pradeep Publications: Plant Physiology.

5.      S.N.Pandey, B.K.Dinha. Vikas Publishers: Plant Physiology.

6.      C.P.Malik. Kalyani Publishers: Plant Physiology

7.  Plant Molecular  biology:Burhannan.
8.  Biochemistry:Tej& Jagger.
                      

 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA
                             II B. Sc – BOTANY SEMESTER- IV.
                                       PRACTICAL SYLLABUS (BOTCO39)
                      PAPER- IV - Plant Physiology and metabolism
 Total hours of laboratory Exercises 45 hrs @ 3 per week in 15 sessions


1Determination of osmotic potential of vacuolar sap by plasmolytic method using leaves of Rhoeo / Tradescantia.
2. Structure of stomata (dicot & monocot)
3. Determination of rate of transpiration using cobalt chloride method.
4. Demonstration of transpiration by Ganongs’ photometer
5. Demonstration of ascent of sap/Transpiration pull
6. Calculation of Stomatal Index& Stomatal Freqency  of  mesophyte& xerophytes
7. Study of mineral deficiency symptoms using plant material/photographs.
8. Separation of chloroplast pigments using paper chromatography technique.
9. Rate of photosynthesis under varying Co2 concentration.
10. Effect of kind of light intensity, bicarbonate concentration in photosynthesis
on oxygen evolution ( Hydrilla funnel ).
11. Demonstration of fermentation.



MARIS TELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                                   III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V:
                                    BOTANY SYLLABUS (BOTCO42)
          THEORY PAPER – Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant Breeding
             Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

Course Outcomes

  CO1: Study the basic components of cell.
  CO2: Learn about inheritance, behavior of chromosomes
  CO3: key role of cell division during cell cycle.
  CO4: Know about the cell as a structural and functional unit of life, especially
            know the basic components of a cell &to learn basic principles of
   CO5: Inheritance at molecular and cellular levels during  practical’s:
                                   
    CO6: Plant Breeding is to produce new crop varieties superior to existing
                                      types in all.
    CO7 :Learn about Techniques of Hybridization during practical’s. 
.
UNIT – I Cell Biology:                                                       (15hrs)
1. Cell, the unit of life- Cell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;                               Eukaryotic cell components.
2. Ultra structure and functions of cell wall and cell membranes.
3. Chromosomes: morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome          (nucleosome model), Euchromatin and heterochromatin.
4. DNA as the genetic material: Griffith’s and Avery’s transformation experiment, Hershey – Chase bacteriophage experiment.5.. DNA structure (Watson & Crick model) and replication of DNA (semi-conservative)
6.. Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), their structure and function.

UNIT – II Genetics
 Mendelian Inheritance:                                                     (15 hrs)
1Mendel’s laws of Inheritance (Mono- and Di- hybrid crosses); backcross and test cross.
2. Chromosome theory of Inheritance.
3. Linkage: concept, complete and incomplete linkage, coupling and repulsion; linkage maps based on two and three factor crosses.
4. Crossing Over: concept & significance.
5.  Mutations-Chromosomal aberrations-structural and numerical changes,Gene mutations.

UNIT – III Plant Breeding:                                                 (15 hrs)
1. Introduction and Objectives of plant breeding.
2. Methods of crop improvement: Procedure, advantages and limitations of
Introduction, Selection, and Hybridization (outlines only).

UNIT – IV Breeding, Crop Improvement and Biotechnology: (15 hrs)1. Role of mutations in crop improvement.
2. Role of somaclonal variations in crop improvement.
3. Molecular breeding – use of DNA markers in plant breeding and crop improvement
(RAPD, RFLP).

Suggested activity
: Seminar, Debate, Quiz, observation of live cells and nucleus in Onion peels, observation of Meiotic nuclei in Maize pollen. Solving Genetics problems.

Suggested Readings:
1. Old, R.W. and Primrose S.B. 1994, Principles of Gene Manipulation Blackwell Science,19
London 2. Grierson, D. and Convey S.N. 1989, Plant Molecular Biology, Blackie Publishers, NewYork.
2. Lea, P.J. and Leegood R.C. 1999, Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, John Wileyand Sons, London.
3. Power C.B., 1984, Cell Biology, Himalaya Publishing Co. Mumbai
4. De. Robertis and De Robertis, 1998, Cell and Moleceular Biology, K.M. Verghese andCompany .
5. Sinnott, E.W., L.C. Dunn & J. Dobshansky (1958) : Principles of Genetics (5th Edition)
McGraw Hill Publishing Co., N.Y. Toronto, London.
6. Winchester, A.M. (1958) : Genetics(3rd Edition) Oxford & IBH Publishing House,Calcutta, Bombay, New Delhi.
7. Singleton, R.(1963) : Elementary Genetics, D. Van Nostrand Co., Ltd., Inc., N.Y. &Affiliated East West Press (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
8. Strickberger, M.W. (1976): Genetics(2nd Edition) MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc.,N.Y., London
9. Watson, J.D. (1977): Molecular Biology of the Gene, W.A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park- California, Reading-Massachusetts, London, Amsterdam, Don Mills, Ontario, Sydney.
10. Gardner,E.J & Snusted, D.P.(1984): Principles of Genetics (7thedition)
John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore.



MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                    III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS  SEMESTERV
                                 Practical Paper-V: (BOTCO44)
           CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING
              Total hours of teaching 30hrs @ 2hrs per week


1. Study of the structure of cell organelles through photomicrographs.

2. Study of structure of plant cell through temporary mounts.

3. Study of various stages of mitosis using cytological preparation of Onion root  tips.
4. Study of DNA packing by micrographs.

5. Study of effect of temperature & organic solvent on permeability of cell          membrane.

6. Numerical problems solving Mendel’ Laws of inheritance

7. Chromosome mapping using 3 point test cross data.

8. Hybridization techniques – emasculation, bagging (for demonstration only).

9. Field visit to a plant breeding research station.

10. Calorimetric estimation of DNA by diphenylamine method.



 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
           III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY THEORY SYLLABUS
          PAPER-VI: PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
                  Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week
                                                  (BOTCO43)



   CO1:   learn about various Ecosystems & relationships between Organisms and environment.
  CO2:learn Phytogeography  which gives major plant communities of the world and
    Different Vegetational belts of the earth with characteristic climatic
            Conditions of the area.
   CO3:To learn about the Various Ecosytems & Plant distribution
   Co4   Elaborate plant population and community Ecology.



UNIT – I. Elements of Ecology Ecosystem                    (15hrs)
1. Ecology: definition, branches and significance of ecology.
2. Climatic Factors: Light, Temperature, precipitation.
3. Edaphic Factor: Origin, formation, composition and soil profile.
4. Biotic Factor: Interactions between plants and animals.
 Ecosystem
4. Ecosystem:Types ,structure and functions of ecosystem(pond ecosystem), energy flow, Food chain, Food web, Ecological pyramids.
5. Productivity of ecosystem-Primary, Secondary and Net productivity.
6. Biogeochemical cycles- Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.

UNIT – II Population &Community Ecology              (15 hrs)

1. Population -definition, characteristics and importance, outlines –ecotypes.
2. Plant communities-  Analytical and  synthetic characters of community-(life forms, competition.)
3.Plant succession-Hydrosere, Xerosere

UNIT – III Phytogeography                                            (15hrs)

1. Principles of Phytogeography, Distribution (wides, endemic, discontinuous species)
2. Phytogeographic regions of India.
3. Endemism – types and causes
 Plant Biodiversity and its importance (15 hrs)
1. Definition
2. Biodiversity hotspots- Criteria, Biodiversity hotspots of India.
3. Biodiversity – causes and conservation (In-situ and ex-situ methods).
4. Seed banks - conservation of genetic resources and their importance


Suggested activity : Collection of different soils, studying their texture, observing polluted water
bodies, student study projects, debates on man’s activity on ecosystem and biodiversity conservation
methods, visiting a nearest natural vegetation area. Visit to NGO, working in the field of biodiversity
and report writing; to study Honey Bees and plants yielding honey.

Suggested Readings:

1. Daubenmire, R.F. ( ): Plants & Environment (2nd Edn.,) John Wiley & Sons.,    New York
2. Puri, .G.S. (1960): Indian Forest Ecology (Vol.I & II) Oxford Book Co., New Delhi &
Calcutta.
3. Billings, W.B. (1965): Plants and the Ecosystem Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., Belmont.
4. Misra, R. (1968): The Ecology work Book Oxford & INH Publishing Co., Calcutta
5. Odum E.P. (1971): Fundamentals of Ecology (2nd Edn.,) Saunders & Co., Philadelphia &
Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.
6. Odum E.P. (1975): Ecology By Holt, Rinert & Winston.


  
MARIS STELLA COLLEGE(AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                     III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY PRACTICAL (BOTCO45)
        PRACTICAL PAPER-VI: PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

Total hours
1. Study of instruments used to measure microclimatic variables; soil thermometer, maximum and minimum thermometer, anemometer, psychrometer, rain gauze, and lux meter.
2. Permeability (percolation; total capacity as well as rate of movement) of different soil samples.
3. Determination of soil pH
4. Study of morphological and anatomical adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes (4 each)
5. Determination of minimal quadrat size for the study of herbaceous vegetation in the college campus by species area curve method
6. Study of Phytoplankton and macrophytes from water bodies.
6. Study of species diversity index of vegetation.
7. Estimation of Primary Productivity of an ecosystem
8. To study field vegetation with respect to stratification, canopy cover and composition.
9. Study of plants included in agro forestry and social forestry.
10. To locate the hotspots, phyto geographical regions and distribution of endemic plants in the map of India.
11. The following practical should be conducted in the Field/lab with the help of photographs, herbarium, Floras, Red data book- Study of endangered plants species, critically endangered plants species, vulnerable plant species and monotypic endemic genera of India.



 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA -8
                  III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
                   PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE [(A) or (B) or (C)] (BOTCO46)
Paper VII-(A): ORGANIC FARMING & SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
         Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
.
Course Outcomes

CO1: Understand the techniques of cultivating crops & agricultural practices.
Co2 Enlighten the students regarding the latest trends & Innovations
                                 in the field of Agriculture.
CO3:To learn about how to cultivate crops & Agricultural practices.
Co4 Outline the benefits of crop production practices using green manures, neem oil, neem       cake, pongamia oil in organic farming.

CO5: Self Employment creation.


Unit - I: Concept of organic farming:                         (15hrs)
1. Introduction: Farming, organic farming, concept and development of organic farming.
2. Principles of organic farming, types of organic farming, biodynamic farming.
3. Benefits of organic farming, need for organic farming, conventional farming v/sorganic farming
4. Scope of organic farming; Andhra Pradesh, National and International status.
5. Agencies and institutions related to organic agriculture.
6. Requirements for organic farming, farm components for an organic farm.

Unit - II: Organic plant nutrient management:            (15hrs)
1. Organic farming systems, soil tillage, land preparation and mulching.
2. Choice of varieties.
3. Propagation-seed, planting materials and seed treatments, water
management
4. Green manuring, composting- principles, stages, types and factors,
composting methods, Vermi composting
5. Bulky organic manures, concentrated organic manures, organic preparations,
organic amendments and sludges.
6. Bio-fertilizers- types, methods of application, advantages and disadvantages,
standards for organic inputs- fertilizers

Unit-III: Organic plant protection, Organic crop production practices:  (15hrs)
1. Plant protection- cultural, mechanical, botanical pesticides, control agents
2. Weed management
3. Standards for organic inputs- plant protection.
 Organic crop production practices:
4. Organic crop production methods- rice, coconut.
5. Organic crop production methods- vegetables- okra, amaranthus, cucurbits.
6. Livestock component in organic farming.
7. Sustainable Agriculture-Apiculture, Mushroom cultivation.

Unit- IV: Organic Certification (15hrs)
1. Farm economy: Basic concept of economics- demand &supply, economic
viability of a farm.
2. Basic production principles, reducing expenses, ways to increase returns, cost ofproduction system. Benefit/ cost ratio, marketing, imports and exports.
3. Policies and incentives of organic production.
4. Farm inspection and certification.
5. Terrace farming.

Suggested Reading:

1. Palaniappan SP &Anandurai K. 1999. Organic Farming–Theory and Practice. ScientificPublishers, Jodhpur

2. Joshi, M. 2014. New Vistas of Organic Farming 2nd Ed. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

3. Farming system : Theory and Practice - S.A.Solaimalai

4. Organic Farming: Theory and Practice- S.P.Palaniappan and K.A. Annadurai

5. A hand book of Organic Farming by A.K.Sharma


Suggested Activities: Preparation of Vermicompost in small scale, observing sewage sludge disposalmechanisms in urban/semi urban areas, studying the usage, of green manures, neem oil, neem cake,pongamia oil in organic farming, livestock component in various farming methods, visiting an Apiculture center, drawing various terrace farming model

                                         

 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                                Practical  Semester – VI, (BOTCO51)
      Paper-VII-A : Organic Farming and Sustainable Agriculture
           Total hours of teaching 30 hrs @ 2 hrs per week

1.      Study of different bio pesticides, weedicides, inorganic and organic
Fertilizers.
2. Deficiency symptoms of nutrient deficiency symptoms (photographs)
3. Soil testing, liming, and fertilizing
4. Preparation of enriched Farm Yard Manure.
5. Study of composting methods.
6. Preparation of vermicompost.
7. Study of recycling of farm waste.
8. Study of methods of green manuring.
9. Study of steps in mushroom cultivation
10. Visit to urban waste recycling unit.
11. Study project report under supervision of lecturer – farm manure preparation/vermi-compost// /wastemanagement// green manures/ mushroom cultivation / nutrient requirements of vegetables

Expected domain skills to be achieved: Performing Soil analysis, soil enrichment methods, composting procedure, recycling of wastes, use of waste materials in mushroom cultivation, understanding nutrient requirement of various crops, identifying various methods of keeping soil health.



 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                                      III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS
                                              SEMESTER- VI (BOTC047)
                                       PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE
                 Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture.
                    Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

    CO1: To develop skills in Horticulture.
    CO2: To  maintain & develop nursaries, Kitchen garden, Bonsai,
                                   Indoor gardens.
    C03 To promote skill development at individual level.
    Co4Apply knowledge of use of computer for designing landscaping, home gardening, parks and its components and the plants needed



   Unit I: Nursery:                                                                (15hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives, scope and building up of infrastructure for nursery.
2. Planning and seasonal activities - Planting - direct seeding and transplants.
3. Nursery Management and Routine Garden Operations.

Unit II: Gardening Propagation methods                       (12 hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives and scope - different types of gardening.
2. Landscape and home gardening - parks and its components, plant materials and  design .
3. Computer applications in landscaping.
4. Gardening operations: soil laying, manuring, watering.
5. Landscaping Places of Public Importance: Landscaping highways and
Educational Institutions)
6. Some Famous gardens of India. Propagation methods (15hrs.)
7 Sowing/raising of seeds and seedlings, transplanting of seedlings. 8.Airlayering, cutting, selection of cutting ,propagule collecting season, treatment of  cutting rooting medium and planting of cuttings - Hardening of   plants.
8. Propagation of ornamental plants by rhizomes, corms tubers, bulbs and           bulbils.
9 .Green house - mist chamber, shed root, shade house and glass house for
    propagation.

Unit III: Floriculture: ( 15 hrs.)
1. Ornamental Plants: Flowering annuals; herbaceous, perennials; Divine vines;
     Shade and ornamental trees.
2. Ornamental bulbous and foliage plants; Cacti and succulents.
3. Ornamentals-palms.
4. Cultivation of plants in pots; Indoor gardening; Bonsai.

Unit IV: Commercial Floriculture ( 15 hrs.)
1. Factors affecting flower production; Production and packaging of cut   flowers;  Flower arrangements; Methods to prolong vase life of flowers
2. Cultivation of Important cut flowers (Carnation, Aster, Dahlia, Gerbera,
    Anthuriams, Gladiolous, Marigold, Rose, Lilium)
3. Management of pests, diseases and harvesting.
4. Methods of harvesting.

Suggested Reading :

1. Bose T.K. & Mukherjee, D., 1972, Gardening in India, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.
2. Sandhu, M.K., 1989, Plant Propagation, Wile Eastern Ltd., Bangalore, Madras.
3. Kumar, N., 1997, Introduction to Horticulture, Rajalakshmi Publications, Nagercoil. institution)
4.Randhawa, G.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A. 1986. Floriculture in India. Allied   Publishers.


 Suggested Activities: Raising a nursery, managing it, studying and drawing various land scaping designs,  practicing layering methods, using shade nets to protect horticultural crops, practicing indoor gardening techniques, visiting florists and recording their methods of prolonging vase life of commercial cut flowers.


  
MARIS STELLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIJAYAWADA-8
                             III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS
                  SEMESTER- VI (Elective)    Practical Syllabus,
             Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture (BOTCO52)
                Total hours of teaching 30hrs @ 2hrs per week
                                       

1. Tools, implements and containers used for propagation and nursery   techniques.
2. Propagation by cutting, layering, budding and grafting
3. Seed propagation- preparation of portable trays, seed treatments, sowing and seedling production.
4. Identification and description of annuals, herbaceous perennials, climbers, creepers, foliage and flowering shrubs, trees, palms, ferns, ornamental grasses; cacti and succulents..
5. Planning and designing of gardens, functional uses of plants in the landscape
6. Preparation of land for lawn and planting.
7. Identification of commercially important flower crops and their varieties.
8. Propagation practices in flower crops, sowing of seeds and raising of seedlings of annuals.
9. Use of chemicals and other compounds for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers.
10. Grading, packing and marketing of cut flowers.
11. Visit to commercial nurseries and commercial tissue culture laboratory
12. Study project under supervision of lecturer – nursery/ornamental flowers/ plants/lawn designing/ landscape designing .

Expected domain skills to be achieved: Ability to use a variety of garden tools and implements, proficiency in layering and grafting techniques (cleft grafting and bud grafting), land scape drawings using  computers, raising of healthy nurseries of flowering plants, managing vase life of cut flowers etc...



                    

MARIS STELLA(AUTONOMOUS)COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
                    CLUSTER ELECTIVES (Cluster–A or Cluster-B)
                    III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
                    Paper VIII, CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Cluster-A,
      Paper VIII-A-1 : PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE
                    Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
                                                    (BOTCO48)

   Course Outcomes  

  CO1:  To learn about the rare, endangered, endemic species and
                             their biodiversity.
   CO2: To create awareness about the plants& their Biodiversity.
     Co3 Explain about Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Geographical Information using additional OE resources available in the internet usingmodern ICT tools.
 Co4Understand solid and liquid waste management techniques
 Co5System GIS, green account with emphasis on carbon footprint, resource accounting


Unit- I: Plant diversity and its scope Loss of biodiversity,: (15hrs)
i. Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Plant diversity at the ecosystem level,
Agro biodiversity and cultivated plant taxa, wild taxa.
ii. Values and uses of biodiversity: Ethical and aesthetic values, iii.Methodologies for valuation, Uses of plants.
 Loss of biodiversity:
iii. Loss of genetic diversity, Loss of species diversity, Loss of ecosystem diversity, Loss of agro biodiversity, projected scenario for biodiversity loss
iv. Management of plant biodiversity: Organizations associated with biodiversity,management-Methodology for execution-IUCN, UNEP, UNESCO, WWF, NBPGR;Biodiversity legislation(Out lines) and conservations, Biodiversity information management andcommunication. (Out lines)

Unit-II: Contemporary practices in resource management: (12hrs)
i. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Geographical Information
System GIS, Participatory resource appraisal, Ecological footprint(green account) with emphasis on carbon footprint, Resource accounting;
ii. Solid and liquid waste management

Unit -III: Conservation of biodiversity (12hrs)
i. Conservation of genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem
diversity, In situ and ex situ conservation,
ii. Social approaches to conservation, Biodiversity awareness  programmes, Sustainable development.
Unit- IV: Role of plants in relation to Human Welfare (12hrs)
i. Importance of forestry, their utilization and commercial aspectsa)
Avenue trees, b) ornamental plants of India. c) Alcoholic  beverages through ages.
ii. Fruits and nuts: Important fruit crops their commercial importance.
Wood, fiber and their uses.




Suggested Readings:
1. Krishnamurthy, K.V. (2004). An Advanced Text Book of Biodiversity - Principles and  Practices. Oxford and IBH Publications Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
2. Singh, J. S., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S. (2006). Ecology, Environment and Resource  Conservation. Anamaya Publications, New Delhi.
3. Rogers, P.P., Jalal, K.F. and Boyd, J.A. (2008). An Introduction to Sustainable Development. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.


Suggested activities: Study of flora and its diversity in the college campus or local area,enumerating wild and exotic species(Parthenium,Water hyacinth etc.)
Project work on any one of the International organizations striving for
preservation of biodiversity, study of conservation efforts of local people, and
civic bodies, study of locally available fruits in different seasons, enumerating the avenue   plantations and their diversity in your town.

  
MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
                                            Paper – VIII-A-1 : (BOTCO53)
          Practicals: PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE
             Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3hrs per week

1) Study of plant diversity (flowering plants).
2) Study of exotic species- Identification and morphological characteristics.
3) Identification of forest trees through bark, wood, flowers leaves and fruits.
4) Maceration, Study of wood (Tracheary elements, fibres).
5) Methods of preservation and canning of fruits.
6) Visit to the local ecosystem to study the plants.
7) Write up on the conservation efforts of International organizations.
8) Study of Solid and Liquid waste management systems in rural/urban areas.

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of exotic plant species, identification of forest trees based on the characteristics of bark, flowers and fruits, understanding the preservation methods of fresh and dry fruits, understanding the methods of safe disposal of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.




 MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS)COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
                            III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS
               SEMESTER- VIII : CLUSTER ELECTIVE -A
    Paper VIII-A-2 : ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY
                  Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
                                             (BOTCO49)
Course Outcomes

Co1Able to know various common plants, their usage
                                  and medicinal values through primitive culture.
  Co2:  To Learn about the medicinal values of these plants which are
                                  Used in our daily life.
Co3  Explain about concept, scope and objectives of Ethnobotany as an
Inter-disciplinary science using additional OE resources available in the internet.

  Co4:To create awareness about the common medicinal plants in and
                                 around, which are of therepeutical use.

                             
Unit –I: Ethnobotany, Role of ethnobotany in modern Medicine  (15hrs)

i. Introduction, concept, scope and objectives; Ethnobotany as an
interdisciplinary science. The relevance of ethnobotany in the present context
ii. Major and minor ethnic groups or Tribals of India, and their life
     styles.
iii. Plants used by the tribal populations: a) Food plants, b) intoxicants
      and beverages, c) Resins and oils and miscellaneous uses.
iv.   Role of ethnobotany in modern medicine with special example
      Rauvolfia sepentina,  Trichopus zeylanicusArtemisia annua, Withania                          .     sominifera.
V. Significance of the following plants in ethno botanical practices
      (along with their habitat and morphology)
       a) Azadirachta indica, b) Ocimum sanctum, c) Vitex negundo, d)
     Gloriosa superba, e) Tribulus terrestris, f) Phyllanthus niruri , g) Cassia
   auriculata, h) Indigofera tinctoria , i) Senna auriculata j).Curcuma longa

Unit -II: Ethnobotany as a tool to protect interests of ethnic groups(15)
i.Role of ethnic groups in the conservation of plant genetic
resources.
ii. Medico-ethnobotanical sources in India
iii. Sharing of wealth concept with few examples from India.
iv. Biopiracy, Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge.

Unit -III: History, Scope and Importance of Medicinal Plants. indigenous    Medicinal Sciences (15hrs)
i. Definition and Scope-Ayurveda: History, origin, panchamahabhutas, saptadhatu and tridosha concepts, Rasayana, plants used in ayurvedic treatments.
ii. Siddha: Origin of Siddha medicinal systems, Basis of Siddha system, plants   used in Siddha medicine.
iii. Unani: History, concept: Umoor-e- tabiya, tumors treatments/
therapy, polyherbal formulations (in brief).

Unit -IV: Conservation of endangered and endemic medicinal plants:
(15hrs)
i. Definition: endemic and endangered medicinal plants,
ii. Red list criteria
iiiIn situ conservation: Biosphere reserves, sacred groves,
     National Parks
iv. Ex situ conservation: Botanical Gardens.

Suggested Activities: Studying plant utilization methods by tribal/rural/migrant populations for their beverages, food, medicinal and uses, seminars on role of ethnic groups in  conservation of plant genetic resources, project work on traditional knowledge about plant   medicines, study of indigenous medicinal sciences and their efficacy.


Suggested Readings:
1S.K. Jain, Manual of Ethnobotany, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, 1995.
2) Glimpses of Indian. Ethnobotny, Oxford and I B H, New Delhi – 1981.
3) S.K. Jain (ed.) 1989. Methods and approaches in ethnobotany. Society of
ethnobotanists, Lucknow, India.
4) S.K. Jain, 1990. Contributions of Indian ethnobotny.Scientific publishers,
Jodhpur.
5) Colton C.M. 1997. Ethnobotany – Principles and applications. John Wiley and sons– Chichester
6) Rama Ro, N and A.N. Henry (1996). The Ethnobotany of Eastern Ghats in
Andhra Pradesh, India.Botanical Survey of India. Howrah.
7. Trivedi P C, 2006. Medicinal Plants: Ethnobotanical Approach, Agrobios, India.
8. Purohit and Vyas, 2008. Medicinal Plant Cultivation: A Scientific Approach, 2nd edn. Agrobios, India.
9. Pal, D.C. & Jain, S.K., 1998. Tribal Medicine. Naya Prakash Publishers, Calcutta
10. Raychudhuri, S.P., 1991. (Ed.) Recent advances in Medicinal aromatic and spice crops.  Vol.1, Today& Tomorrow’s printers and publishers, New Delhi

 

MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS)COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
                       Cluster Elective VIII-A-2: (BOTCO54)
      Practical:  ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY

1. Ethno botanical specimens as prescribed in theory syllabus.
2. Detailed morphological and anatomical study of medicinally important part(s) of locally available plants (Minimum 8 plants) used in traditional medicine.
3. Field visits to identify and collect ethno medicinal plants used by local tribes/folklore.

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of various plant parts used as medicines by ethnic groups, understanding the difference between ancient wisdom and modern system of medicine, traditional medicine at the rescue of curing drug resistant maladies like malaria  and viral diseases, understanding the role of spices in Indian kitchens, their therapeutic role.





 MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS)COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
              III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VIII
                     CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Paper VIII-A-3
           Paper VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry (BOTC050)
                    Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
                                           
Course Outcomes

 Co1: Able to know various common plants, plant products,drugs and  their chemical compounds and medicinal u
Co2To create awareness about the common crude drugs, and their therepeutical values.
Co3 Explain about concept, scope and objectives of Ethnobotany as an
Inter-disciplinary science using additional OE resources available in the internet.
Co4 Realizes primary and secondary metabolites and their differences, major types - terpenes, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids
Co5Aware of sources of drugs and biosynthesis : (Phenols ,Steroids, Alcohols), enzymes, proteins and amino acids etc.


Unit-I: Pharmacognosy                                               (15hrs)
i.Definition, Importance, Classification of drugs - Chemical and
Pharmacological, Drug evaluation methods
2.Organoleptic and microscopic studies with reference to nature of
active principles and common adulterants of Alstonia scholaris
(bark), Adhatoda vasica(leaf), Strychnos nuxvomica (seed), Rauwolfia
serpentina(root) and Zinziber officinalis Catharanthus roseus.

Unit-II: Secondary Metabolites:                                 (15hrs)
i. Definition of primary and secondary metabolites and their differences, major types - terpenes, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids.
ii. A brief idea about extraction of alkaloids.Origin of secondary metabolites – detailed   account of acetate pathway, mevalonate pathway, shikimate pathway.

UNIT-III: Phytochemistry:                                            (15hrs)
Biosynthesis and sources of drugs:
(i) Phenols and phenolic glycosides : structural types, biosynthesis, importance of simple phenolic compounds, tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins and furanocoumarins, flavones and related flavonoid glycosides, anthocyanins, betacyanins, stilbenes, lignins and lignans).
(ii) Steroids, sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, cucurbitacins:
Biosynthesis, commercial importance.
(iii) Alkaloids: Different groups, biosynthesis, bioactivity.
(v) Volatile oils, aromatherapy.

UNIT-IV: Enzymes, proteins and amino acids as drugs: (15hrs)
i. Vaccines, toxins and toxoids, antitoxins, immune globulins, antiserums,41
ii. Vitamins, Antibiotics – chemical nature, mode of action.
iii. Pharmacological action of plant drugs – tumor inhibitors, PAF antagonists,
antioxidants, phytoestrogens and others.
iv. Role of different enzyme inhibitors.


Suggested Activities: Isolation techniques of active principles from various parts of popular medicinal plants, debates on the efficacy of plant medicines and palliative cure, volatile oils  from plants-extraction methods, project work on crude drugs.


Suggested Readings:

1. Wallis, T. E. 1946. Text book of Pharmacognosy, J & A Churchill Ltd. 2.      Roseline, A. 2011. Pharmacognosy. MJP Publishers, Chennai.
2. Gurdeep Chatwal, 1980. Organic chemistry of natural productis.
    Vol.I.Himalaya Publishing house.
3. Kalsi, P. S. and Jagtap, S., 2012. Pharmaceutical medicinal and natural     product  chemistry N.K. Mehra . Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
4. Agarwal, O. P. 2002. Organic chemistry–Chemistry of organic natural
products. Vol. II. Goel publishing house , Meerut.
5. Harborne, J. B. 1998. Phytochemical methods –a guide to modern techniques of  plant analysis 3 rd edition, Chapman and Hall
6. Datta & Mukerji, 1952. Pharmacognosy of Indian roots of Rhizome drugs. Bulletin    No.1 Ministry of Health, Govt. of India.



MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS)COLLEGE, VIJAYAWADA-8
      VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: PRACTICALS
                                                      (BOTCO55)

1. Physical and chemical tests for evaluation of unorganized drugs-   Asaphoetida. Honey, Castor oil. Acacia
2. Identification of bark drugs – cinchona, cinnamom
3. Identification of fruit drugs – Cardamom, Coriander
4. Identification of root and rhizome drugs- Ginger, Garlic, Turmeric
5. Identification of whole plant – Aloes,Vinca, Punarnava

6. Herbarium of medicinal plants ( minimum of 20 platns)
7. Collection of locally available crude drugs from local venders (minimum of 20)

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of various plant parts used as medicines,extraction of active principles from them, isolation by chromatographic techniques, learningcallus culture techniques for secondary metabolite enrichment and understanding ethnopharmacological principles.


          MARIS STELLA (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE, Vijayawada – 8
                                          DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
MUSHROOM CULTIVATION (Certificate Course)
                                                  (CERBOT01)


OBJECTIVES:
                    The need for food high in nutritive value and low in calories has given rise to     mushroom cultivation on a large scale
                    The edible mushroom varities can be grown on re cycled agro waste & can therefore serve as a major end user for biowaste obtained from the campus gardens.
Course Outcomes                  
 To create gainful self employment especially for unemployed youth & weaker sections of the society.


1.  Introduction, Classification of mushrooms, Basidiocarp structure and    anatomy.
2.  Importance of mushrooms, Nutritional values, Medicinal values, Composition, Differentiation of poisonous and edible mushrooms.
3. Cultivation of Milky mushrooms, Procedure including Spawn preparation and Harvesting.
4. Cultivation of Oyster mushrooms, Detailed procedure including Spawn preparation and   Harvesting
5. Different types of Cultivation techniques.
6. Preservation, Canning and Marketing of mushrooms, Financial assistance etc.




 MARIS STELLA COLLEGE OF (AUTONOMOUS): VIJAYAWADA-08
Syllabus for certificate course in Herbal Medicine
 (CERBOT02)
                                                                                                            TOTAL HOURS: 90
 OBJECTIVES: Able to know various medicinal plants & their usage.
Course Outcomes Learn about the medicinal values of various plants available in & around     which are commonly used in our daily life
 : Introduction :- scope and importance of Herbal medicine
II. Basic concepts of Indian medicinal system
(Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Siddha, Unani, Yoga and Naturopathy)
III. Herbal medicine for human diseases
      Diabetes         - Gymnema sylvestre
                                Curcuma longa 
     Diarrhoea        -  Carum copticum
                               Cuminum cyminum
Rheumatism        - Vitex   negundo
                              Ricinus communis
Hypertension      - Zingiber officinale
                              Rauwolfia serpentina
Cancer     - Catharanthes roseus
                              Asparagus racemosus0
Nausea    - Elettaria cardamomum
                              Punica granatum 

IV. Current concepts of food and nutrition
1)      Kitchen  remedies (Turmeric ,Asafoetida ,Blackpepper,Jeera,Ginger,Garlic,  Fenugreek,  coriander,curry leaves )
2)       Common Herbal  remedies (cosmetics – Hibiscus,  Abrus,  Lawsonia  Eclipta , Aloevera , Tephrosia )
3)      Adulterants
V.  Collection of medicinal plants and preservation methods
PRACTICALS:
1.      Identification and study of various medicinal plants prescribed in the theory syllabus.
2.      Detailed morphological study of medicinally important plants and plant products. (Kitchen remedies, common herbal remedies, herbal medicine for human diseases)
3.      Collection of medicinal plants and products and their preservation methods.
4.      Field visit to local areas to collect the medicinal plants and products.
5.      Preparation of medicinal plant list.


REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.      R.C.Rajak & M.K.Rai. Herbal medicines biodiversity and conservation strategies.
2.      Herbal Medicine for diseases – Irfan Ali khan, Adiya khanum Vol 1 & 2.
3.      Field guide on Medicinal plants-Forest department.- AP 1999.
4.      Medical Botany – 3 B.Sc (common core) - A.S.S.Ammanna Sastry &   A.v.Subbalakshmi.
5.      Medical Botany & Pharmacognosy- E.John Jyothi Prakash.
6.      Plant products- A.S.S.Ammanna Sastry & A.V.Subbalakshmi.


I B.Sc. –BOTANY SEMISTER

PAPER-I;SEMESTER-I

MICROBIAL DIVERSITY,ALGAE AND FUNGI
Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week


UNIT-I:ORIGIN OF LIFE ANDMICROBIAL DIVERSITY -22hrs
1.Origin of Life-Theories
2.Microbialdiversity-Mycoplasmas,Chlamydia,Archaebacteria,Actinomycetes
3. Viruses :Generalaccount of viruses,structure,replication and transmission of plant diseases caused by viruses(TMV).( viroid’s and Prions)
4.Bacteria:structure.nutrition,reproduction and economic importance. Outlineof plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria(Citrus canker) and their control.

UNIT-II: CYANOBACTERIA AND LICHENS -12hrs
1.Cyanobacteria :General characters ,cell structure,and their uses as Biofertilizers.
2.Structure and reproduction and life history of Nostoc and Scytonema.
3.Lichens-Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction,Economic importance.

UNIT-III:ALGAE--14hrs
1.Generalaccount,thallusorganization,structure,reproduction,Fritch classification of algae and economic importance.
2. Structure, reproduction, life history of Oedogonium,Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia.

UNIT-IV:FUNGI-12hrs
1.General characters ,classification(Alexopolous) and economic importance.
2.Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo,Penicillium,Puccinia.
3.General account of plant diseses caused by fungi(Tikka disease of groundnut) and their control.


 I-B.Sc-BOTANY SYLLABUS
   PAPER-I SEMESTER-II
   BOTCO 40
   PAPER-I-II: Diversity Of Archaegoniatae &Plant Anatomy
  Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week

UNIT-I:BRYOPHYTA                                                                                  (14hrs)
       1.      Bryophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
       2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Marchantia and Funaria.
       3.      Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.
UNIT-II:PTERIDOPHYTA                                                                           (24hrs)
       1.      Pteridophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
       2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Rhynia,Lycopodium and Marsilea.
       3.      Heterospory and seed habit.
       4.      Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes.
UNIT-III:GYMNOSPERMS                                                                        (12hrs)
       1.      Gymnosperms:General characters and classification(upto classes).
       2.      Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction and economic importance of Resins Oils,Medicines and Life history of Pinus and Gnetum.
Unit:IV-Anatomy
1.Tissues-Meristematic and permanent tissues(Simple, complex,Secretory)
2.Meristems-Types,histological organisations of shoot and root apices and theories.
3.Tisssue systems –Epidermal, Ground, Vascular
4.Normal secondary growth and Anamalous secondary growth -Achyranthes,Boerhaavia,Dracaena.
5.wood structure-General account,study of local timbers-Teak,Rose wood,Redsanders&Arjun(Tella maddi)


  II B.Sc  - SEMESTER –III:   BOTANY THEORY PAPER –  III Paper  
   Plant Taxonomy and Embryology
   Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week

UNIT – I: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY                       (12 hrs)
  1. Fundamental components of taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification)
  2. Taxonomic resources: Herbarium- functions & important herbaria, Botanical gardens,      Flora, .
3. Botanical Nomenclature- Principles and rules of ICBN (ranks and names; principle of priority, binomial system; type method, author citation, valid-publication).

UNIT – II: CLASSIFICATION (12 hrs)
 1. Types of classification- Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
 2. Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification- merits and demerits.
 3. Engler and Prantle’s system of classification- merits and demerits
 4. Recenttrends  in plant taxonomy(Embryology in relation to taxonomy,Cytotaxonomy and Numerical taxonomy)

UNIT –III: SYSTEMATIC TAXONOMY-I (18 hrs)
   1. Systematic study and economic importance of the following families: Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae.
  2.Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae,Orchidaceae,and Poaceae.

UNIT – IV: EMBRYOLOGY (18 hrs)
I.History and importance of Embryology
2. Anther structure, microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.  
3. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis, development of Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic types (Peperomia, Drusa, Adoxa) of embryo sacs.  
4. Pollination and Fertilization (outlines)
5. Endosperm development and types.  
6. Development of Dicot and Monocot embryos, 
7.Polyembryony and Applications(out lines).

 II B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- IV THEORY
  PAPER – IV
  Paper IV: Plant Physiology and Metabolism
  Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week

UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations      (12hrs)
1.Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water,
2. Diffusion, Imbibition and osmosis, concept of water potential and its components.
3. Absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap
4. Transpiration – types, stomata structure and movements.

UNIT –II: Mineral nutrition Fertilizers,Enzymes       (12hrs)
1. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role, mineral uptake (active and passive), deficiency symptoms
2.. Nitrogen cycle- biological nitrogen fixation
3. Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action.

UNIT –III: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (16hrs)
1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect, concept of two  photo systems, mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen, Photophosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM. Photorespiration.
2. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.

UNIT –IV: PLANT METABOLISM (10 hrs)
1.Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.
2. Lipid Metabolism: Structure and functions of lipids, conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, Beta-oxidation.
3 .ATP-Synthesis; Mechanism of ATP synthesis, substrate level phosphorylation,
chemiosmotic mechanism (oxidative and photophosphorylation), ATP
synthase.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (10hrs)
1.Growth and development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth, Physiological effects of Phyto hormones - Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene
2. Physiology of flowering and photo periodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
3. Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water, salt and temperature stresses.

III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY SYLLABUSTHEORY PAPER – 
VPaper-: Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant BreedingTotal hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

UNIT – I Cell Biology:(15hrs)
1. Cell, the unit of life- Cell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Eukaryotic cellcomponents.
2. Ultra structure and functions of cell wall and cell membranes.
3. Chromosomes: morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome (nucleosomemodel), Euchromatin and heterochromatin.
4. DNA as the genetic material: Griffith’s and Avery’s transformation experiment,Hershey – Chase bacteriophage experiment.5.. DNA structure (Watson & Crick model) and replication of DNA (semi-conservative)
6.. Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), their structure and function.

UNIT – II Genetics
 Mendelian Inheritance: (15 hrs)
1. Mendel’s laws of Inheritance (Mono- and Di- hybrid crosses); backcross and test
cross.
2. Chromosome theory of Inheritance.
3. Linkage: concept, complete and incomplete linkage, coupling and repulsion; linkage maps based on two and three factor crosses.
4. Crossing Over: concept & significance.
5.Mutations-Chromosomal aberrations-structural and numerical changes,Gene mutations.

UNIT – III Plant Breeding: (15 hrs)

1. Introduction and Objectives of plant breeding.
2. Methods of crop improvement: Procedure, advantages and limitations of
Introduction, Selection, and Hybridization (outlines only).


UNIT – IV Breeding, Crop Improvement and Biotechnology: (15 hrs)

1. Role of mutations in crop improvement.
2. Role of somaclonal variations in crop improvement.
3. Molecular breeding – use of DNA markers in plant breeding and crop improvement
(RAPD, RFLP).

III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY THEORY SYLLABUS
PAPER-VI: PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week
UNIT – I. Elements of Ecology Ecosystem
 (15hrs)
1. Ecology: definition, branches and significance of ecology.
2. Climatic Factors: Light, Temperature, precipitation.
3. Edaphic Factor: Origin, formation, composition and soil profile.
4. Biotic Factor: Interactions between plants and animals.
 Ecosystem
4. Ecosystem:Types ,structure and functions of ecosystem(pond ecosystem), energy flow, Food chain, Food web, Ecological pyramids.
5. Productivity of ecosystem-Primary, Secondary and Net productivity.
6. Biogeochemical cycles- Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.
UNIT – II Population &Community Ecology (15 hrs)
1. Population -definition, characteristics and importance, outlines –ecotypes.
2. Plant communities-  Analytical and  synthetic characters of community-(life forms, competition.)
3.Plant succession-Hydrosere, Xerosere
UNIT – IV Phytogeography (15hrs)
1. Principles of Phytogeography, Distribution (wides, endemic, discontinuous species)
2. Phytogeographic regions of India.
3. Endemism – types and causes
 Plant Biodiversity and its importance (15 hrs)
1. Definition
2. Biodiversity hotspots- Criteria, Biodiversity hotspots of India.
3. Biodiversity – causes and conservation (In-situ and ex-situ methods).
4. Seed banks - conservation of genetic resources and their importance
Suggested activity :Collection of different soils, studying their texture, observing polluted water
bodies, student study projects, debates on man’s activity on ecosystem and biodiversity conservation
methods, visiting a nearest natural vegetation area. Visit to NGO, working in the field of biodiversity
and report writing; to study Honey Bees and plants yielding honey.
III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE [(A) or (B) or (C)]
Paper VII-(A): ORGANIC FARMING & SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit - I: Concept of organic farming: (15hrs)
1. Introduction: Farming, organic farming, concept and development of organic farming.
2. Principles of organic farming, types of organic farming, biodynamic farming.
3. Benefits of organic farming, need for organic farming, conventional farming v/sorganic farming
4. Scope of organic farming; Andhra Pradesh, National and International status.
5. Agencies and institutions related to organic agriculture.
6. Requirements for organic farming, farm components for an organic farm.
Unit - II: Organic plant nutrient management: (15hrs)
1. Organic farming systems, soil tillage, land preparation and mulching.
2. Choice of varieties.
3. Propagation-seed, planting materials and seed treatments, water
management
4. Green manuring, composting- principles, stages, types and factors,
composting methods, Vermi composting
5. Bulky organic manures, concentrated organic manures, organic preparations,
organic amendments and sludges.
6. Bio-fertilizers- types, methods of application, advantages and disadvantages,
standards for organic inputs- fertilizers
Unit-III: Organic plant protection, Organic crop production practices:  (15hrs)
1. Plant protection- cultural, mechanical, botanical pesticides, control agents
2. Weed management
3. Standards for organic inputs- plant protection.
 Organic crop production practices:
4. Organic crop production methods- rice, coconut.
5. Organic crop production methods- vegetables- okra, amaranthus, cucurbits.
6. Livestock component in organic farming.
7. Sustainable Agriculture-Apiculture, Mushroom cultivation.
Unit- IV: Organic Certification (15hrs)
1. Farm economy: Basic concept of economics- demand &supply, economic
viability of a farm.
2. Basic production principles, reducing expenses, ways to increase returns, cost ofproduction system. Benefit/ cost ratio, marketing, imports and exports.
3. Policies and incentives of organic production.
4. Farm inspection and certification.

5. Terrace farming.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE
Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture.
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit I: Nursery: (15hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives, scope and building up of infrastructure for nursery.
2. Planning and seasonal activities - Planting - direct seeding and transplants.
3. Nursery Management and Routine Garden Operations.
Unit II: Gardening Propagation methods (12 hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives and scope - different types of gardening.
2. Landscape and home gardening - parks and its components, plant materials and
design .
3. Computer applications in landscaping.
4. Gardening operations: soil laying, manuring, watering.
5. Landscaping Places of Public Importance: Landscaping highways and
Educational Institutions)
6. Some Famous gardens of India.
 Propagation methods (15hrs.)
7 Sowing/raising of seeds and seedlings, transplanting of seedlings. 8.Airlayering,
cutting, selection of cutting ,propagule collecting season, treatment of
cutting rooting medium and planting of cuttings - Hardening of plants.
8. Propagation of ornamental plants by rhizomes, corms tubers, bulbs and bulbils.
9 .Green house - mist chamber, shed root, shade house and glass house for
propagation.
Unit III: Floriculture: ( 15 hrs.)
1. Ornamental Plants: Flowering annuals; herbaceous, perennials; Divine vines;
Shade and ornamental trees.
2. Ornamental bulbous and foliage plants; Cacti and succulents.
3. Ornamentals-palms.
4. Cultivation of plants in pots; Indoor gardening; Bonsai.
Unit IV: Commercial Floriculture ( 15 hrs.)
1. Factors affecting flower production; Production and packaging of cut flowers;
Flower arrangements; Methods to prolong vase life of flowers
2. Cultivation of Important cut flowers (Carnation, Aster, Dahlia, Gerbera,
Anthuriams, Gladiolous, Marigold, Rose, Lilium)
3. Management of pests, diseases and harvesting.
4. Methods of harvesting.


 CLUSTER ELECTIVES (Cluster–A or Cluster-B)
III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
Paper VIII, CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Cluster-A,
Paper VIII-A-1 : PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
____________________________________________________________
Unit- I: Plant diversity and its scope Loss of biodiversity,: (15hrs)
i. Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Plant diversity at the ecosystem level,
Agro biodiversity and cultivated plant taxa, wild taxa.
ii. Values and uses of biodiversity: Ethical and aesthetic values, iii.
Methodologies for valuation, Uses of plants.
 Loss of biodiversity:
iii. Loss of genetic diversity, Loss of species diversity, Loss of ecosystem diversity,
Loss of agro biodiversity, projected scenario for biodiversity loss
iv. Management of plant biodiversity: Organizations associated with biodiversity,management-Methodology for execution-IUCN, UNEP, UNESCO, WWF, NBPGR;Biodiversity legislation(Out lines) and conservations, Biodiversity information management andcommunication. (Out lines)
Unit-II: Contemporary practices in resource management: (12hrs)
i. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Geographical Information
System GIS, Participatory resource appraisal, Ecological footprint(green account)
with emphasis on carbon footprint, Resource accounting;
ii. Solid and liquid waste management
Unit -III: Conservation of biodiversity (12hrs)
i. Conservation of genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem
diversity, In situ and ex situ conservation,
ii. Social approaches to conservation, Biodiversity awareness
programmes, Sustainable development.
Unit- IV: Role of plants in relation to Human Welfare (12hrs)
i. Importance of forestry, their utilization and commercial aspectsa)
Avenue trees, b) ornamental plants of India. c) Alcoholic
beverages through ages.
ii. Fruits and nuts: Important fruit crops their commercial importance.
Wood, fiber and their uses.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUSSEMESTER- VIII : CLUSTER ELECTIVE -A
Paper VIII-A-2 : ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit –I: Ethnobotany, Role of ethnobotany in modern Medicine (15hrs)
i. Introduction, concept, scope and objectives; Ethnobotany as an
interdisciplinary science. The relevance of ethnobotany in the
present context
ii. Major and minor ethnic groups or Tribals of India, and their life
styles.
iii. Plants used by the tribal populations: a) Food plants, b) intoxicants
and beverages, c) Resins and oils and miscellaneous uses.
iv. Role of ethnobotany in modern medicine with special example
Rauvolfia sepentinaTrichopus zeylanicusArtemisia
annua, Withania somnifera.
V.Significance of the following plants in ethno botanical practices
(along with their habitat and morphology)
a) Azadirachta indica, b) Ocimum sanctum, c) Vitex negundo, d)
Gloriosa superba, e) Tribulus terrestris, f) Phyllanthus niruri , g) Cassia
auriculata, h) Indigofera tinctoria , i) Senna auriculata j).Curcuma longa
Unit -II: Ethnobotany as a tool to protect interests of ethnic groups(15)
i.Role of ethnic groups in the conservation of plant genetic
resources.
ii. Medico-ethnobotanical sources in India
iii. Sharing of wealth concept with few examples from India.
iv. Biopiracy, Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge.
Unit -III: History, Scope and Importance of Medicinal Plants.
indigenous Medicinal Sciences (15hrs)
i. Definition and Scope-Ayurveda: History, origin,
panchamahabhutas, saptadhatu and tridosha concepts,
Rasayana, plants used in ayurvedic treatments.
ii. Siddha: Origin of Siddha medicinal systems, Basis of Siddha
system, plants used in Siddha medicine.
iii. Unani: History, concept: Umoor-e- tabiya, tumors treatments/
therapy, polyherbal formulations (in brief).
Unit -IV: Conservation of endangered and endemic medicinal plants:
(15hrs)
i. Definition: endemic and endangered medicinal plants,
ii. Red list criteria
iii. In situ conservation: Biosphere reserves, sacred groves,
National Parks
iv. Ex situ conservation: Botanical Gardens.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VIII
CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Paper VIII-A-3
Paper VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit-I: Pharmacognosy (15hrs)
i.Definition, Importance, Classification of drugs - Chemical and
Pharmacological, Drug evaluation methods
2.Organoleptic and microscopic studies with reference to nature of
active principles and common adulterants of Alstonia scholaris
(bark), Adhatoda vasica(leaf), Strychnos nuxvomica (seed), Rauwolfia
serpentina(root) and Zinziber officinalis Catharanthus roseus.
Unit-II: Secondary Metabolites: (15hrs)
i. Definition of primary and secondary metabolites and their differences, major types -
terpenes, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids.
ii. A brief idea about extraction of alkaloids.Origin of secondary metabolites – detailed
account of acetate pathway, mevalonate pathway, shikimate pathway.
UNIT-III: Phytochemistry: (15hrs)
Biosynthesis and sources of drugs:
(i) Phenols and phenolic glycosides : structural types, biosynthesis, importance of simple
phenolic compounds, tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins and furanocoumarins,
flavones and related flavonoid glycosides, anthocyanins, betacyanins, stilbenes,
lignins and lignans).
(ii) Steroids, sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, cucurbitacins:
Biosynthesis, commercial importance.
(iii) Alkaloids: Different groups, biosynthesis, bioactivity.
(v) Volatile oils, aromatherapy.
UNIT-IV: Enzymes, proteins and amino acids as drugs: (15hrs)
i. Vaccines, toxins and toxoids, antitoxins, immune globulins, antiserums,
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ii. Vitamins, Antibiotics – chemical nature, mode of action.
iii. Pharmacological action of plant drugs – tumor inhibitors, PAF antagonists,
antioxidants, phytoestrogens and others.

iv. Role of different enzyme inhibitors.

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