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Syllabus

I B.Sc. –BOTANY SEMISTER

PAPER-I;SEMESTER-I

MICROBIAL DIVERSITY,ALGAE AND FUNGI
Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week


UNIT-I:ORIGIN OF LIFE ANDMICROBIAL DIVERSITY -22hrs
1.Origin of Life-Theories
2.Microbialdiversity-Mycoplasmas,Chlamydia,Archaebacteria,Actinomycetes
3. Viruses :Generalaccount of viruses,structure,replication and transmission of plant diseases caused by viruses(TMV).( viroid’s and Prions)
4.Bacteria:structure.nutrition,reproduction and economic importance. Outlineof plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria(Citrus canker) and their control.

UNIT-II: CYANOBACTERIA AND LICHENS -12hrs
1.Cyanobacteria :General characters ,cell structure,and their uses as Biofertilizers.
2.Structure and reproduction and life history of Nostoc and Scytonema.
3.Lichens-Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction,Economic importance.

UNIT-III:ALGAE--14hrs
1.Generalaccount,thallusorganization,structure,reproduction,Fritch classification of algae and economic importance.
2. Structure, reproduction, life history of Oedogonium,Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia.

UNIT-IV:FUNGI-12hrs
1.General characters ,classification(Alexopolous) and economic importance.
2.Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo,Penicillium,Puccinia.
3.General account of plant diseses caused by fungi(Tikka disease of groundnut) and their control.


 I-B.Sc-BOTANY SYLLABUS
   PAPER-I SEMESTER-II
   BOTCO 40
   PAPER-I-II: Diversity Of Archaegoniatae &Plant Anatomy
  Total hours of teaching 60hrs@4hrs per week

UNIT-I:BRYOPHYTA                                                                                  (14hrs)
       1.      Bryophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
       2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Marchantia and Funaria.
       3.      Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.
UNIT-II:PTERIDOPHYTA                                                                           (24hrs)
       1.      Pteridophyta:General characters,Classification (upto classes).
       2.      Structure,reproduction and Life history of Rhynia,Lycopodium and Marsilea.
       3.      Heterospory and seed habit.
       4.      Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes.
UNIT-III:GYMNOSPERMS                                                                        (12hrs)
       1.      Gymnosperms:General characters and classification(upto classes).
       2.      Morphology,Anatomy,Reproduction and economic importance of Resins Oils,Medicines and Life history of Pinus and Gnetum.
Unit:IV-Anatomy
1.Tissues-Meristematic and permanent tissues(Simple, complex,Secretory)
2.Meristems-Types,histological organisations of shoot and root apices and theories.
3.Tisssue systems –Epidermal, Ground, Vascular
4.Normal secondary growth and Anamalous secondary growth -Achyranthes,Boerhaavia,Dracaena.
5.wood structure-General account,study of local timbers-Teak,Rose wood,Redsanders&Arjun(Tella maddi)


  II B.Sc  - SEMESTER –III:   BOTANY THEORY PAPER –  III Paper  
   Plant Taxonomy and Embryology
   Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week

UNIT – I: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY                       (12 hrs)
  1. Fundamental components of taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification)
  2. Taxonomic resources: Herbarium- functions & important herbaria, Botanical gardens,      Flora, .
3. Botanical Nomenclature- Principles and rules of ICBN (ranks and names; principle of priority, binomial system; type method, author citation, valid-publication).

UNIT – II: CLASSIFICATION (12 hrs)
 1. Types of classification- Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
 2. Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification- merits and demerits.
 3. Engler and Prantle’s system of classification- merits and demerits
 4. Recenttrends  in plant taxonomy(Embryology in relation to taxonomy,Cytotaxonomy and Numerical taxonomy)

UNIT –III: SYSTEMATIC TAXONOMY-I (18 hrs)
   1. Systematic study and economic importance of the following families: Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae.
  2.Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae,Orchidaceae,and Poaceae.

UNIT – IV: EMBRYOLOGY (18 hrs)
I.History and importance of Embryology
2. Anther structure, microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.  
3. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis, development of Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic types (Peperomia, Drusa, Adoxa) of embryo sacs.  
4. Pollination and Fertilization (outlines)
5. Endosperm development and types.  
6. Development of Dicot and Monocot embryos, 
7.Polyembryony and Applications(out lines).

 II B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- IV THEORY
  PAPER – IV
  Paper IV: Plant Physiology and Metabolism
  Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 4 hrs per week

UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations      (12hrs)
1.Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water,
2. Diffusion, Imbibition and osmosis, concept of water potential and its components.
3. Absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap
4. Transpiration – types, stomata structure and movements.

UNIT –II: Mineral nutrition Fertilizers,Enzymes       (12hrs)
1. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role, mineral uptake (active and passive), deficiency symptoms
2.. Nitrogen cycle- biological nitrogen fixation
3. Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action.

UNIT –III: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (16hrs)
1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect, concept of two  photo systems, mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen, Photophosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM. Photorespiration.
2. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.

UNIT –IV: PLANT METABOLISM (10 hrs)
1.Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.
2. Lipid Metabolism: Structure and functions of lipids, conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, Beta-oxidation.
3 .ATP-Synthesis; Mechanism of ATP synthesis, substrate level phosphorylation,
chemiosmotic mechanism (oxidative and photophosphorylation), ATP
synthase.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (10hrs)
1.Growth and development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth, Physiological effects of Phyto hormones - Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene
2. Physiology of flowering and photo periodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
3. Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water, salt and temperature stresses.

III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY SYLLABUSTHEORY PAPER – 
VPaper-: Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant BreedingTotal hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

UNIT – I Cell Biology:(15hrs)
1. Cell, the unit of life- Cell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Eukaryotic cellcomponents.
2. Ultra structure and functions of cell wall and cell membranes.
3. Chromosomes: morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome (nucleosomemodel), Euchromatin and heterochromatin.
4. DNA as the genetic material: Griffith’s and Avery’s transformation experiment,Hershey – Chase bacteriophage experiment.5.. DNA structure (Watson & Crick model) and replication of DNA (semi-conservative)
6.. Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), their structure and function.

UNIT – II Genetics
 Mendelian Inheritance: (15 hrs)
1. Mendel’s laws of Inheritance (Mono- and Di- hybrid crosses); backcross and test
cross.
2. Chromosome theory of Inheritance.
3. Linkage: concept, complete and incomplete linkage, coupling and repulsion; linkage maps based on two and three factor crosses.
4. Crossing Over: concept & significance.
5.Mutations-Chromosomal aberrations-structural and numerical changes,Gene mutations.

UNIT – III Plant Breeding: (15 hrs)

1. Introduction and Objectives of plant breeding.
2. Methods of crop improvement: Procedure, advantages and limitations of
Introduction, Selection, and Hybridization (outlines only).


UNIT – IV Breeding, Crop Improvement and Biotechnology: (15 hrs)

1. Role of mutations in crop improvement.
2. Role of somaclonal variations in crop improvement.
3. Molecular breeding – use of DNA markers in plant breeding and crop improvement
(RAPD, RFLP).

III B. Sc - SEMESTER- V: BOTANY THEORY SYLLABUS
PAPER-VI: PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week
UNIT – I. Elements of Ecology Ecosystem
 (15hrs)
1. Ecology: definition, branches and significance of ecology.
2. Climatic Factors: Light, Temperature, precipitation.
3. Edaphic Factor: Origin, formation, composition and soil profile.
4. Biotic Factor: Interactions between plants and animals.
 Ecosystem
4. Ecosystem:Types ,structure and functions of ecosystem(pond ecosystem), energy flow, Food chain, Food web, Ecological pyramids.
5. Productivity of ecosystem-Primary, Secondary and Net productivity.
6. Biogeochemical cycles- Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.
UNIT – II Population &Community Ecology (15 hrs)
1. Population -definition, characteristics and importance, outlines –ecotypes.
2. Plant communities-  Analytical and  synthetic characters of community-(life forms, competition.)
3.Plant succession-Hydrosere, Xerosere
UNIT – IV Phytogeography (15hrs)
1. Principles of Phytogeography, Distribution (wides, endemic, discontinuous species)
2. Phytogeographic regions of India.
3. Endemism – types and causes
 Plant Biodiversity and its importance (15 hrs)
1. Definition
2. Biodiversity hotspots- Criteria, Biodiversity hotspots of India.
3. Biodiversity – causes and conservation (In-situ and ex-situ methods).
4. Seed banks - conservation of genetic resources and their importance
Suggested activity :Collection of different soils, studying their texture, observing polluted water
bodies, student study projects, debates on man’s activity on ecosystem and biodiversity conservation
methods, visiting a nearest natural vegetation area. Visit to NGO, working in the field of biodiversity
and report writing; to study Honey Bees and plants yielding honey.
III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE [(A) or (B) or (C)]
Paper VII-(A): ORGANIC FARMING & SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit - I: Concept of organic farming: (15hrs)
1. Introduction: Farming, organic farming, concept and development of organic farming.
2. Principles of organic farming, types of organic farming, biodynamic farming.
3. Benefits of organic farming, need for organic farming, conventional farming v/sorganic farming
4. Scope of organic farming; Andhra Pradesh, National and International status.
5. Agencies and institutions related to organic agriculture.
6. Requirements for organic farming, farm components for an organic farm.
Unit - II: Organic plant nutrient management: (15hrs)
1. Organic farming systems, soil tillage, land preparation and mulching.
2. Choice of varieties.
3. Propagation-seed, planting materials and seed treatments, water
management
4. Green manuring, composting- principles, stages, types and factors,
composting methods, Vermi composting
5. Bulky organic manures, concentrated organic manures, organic preparations,
organic amendments and sludges.
6. Bio-fertilizers- types, methods of application, advantages and disadvantages,
standards for organic inputs- fertilizers
Unit-III: Organic plant protection, Organic crop production practices:  (15hrs)
1. Plant protection- cultural, mechanical, botanical pesticides, control agents
2. Weed management
3. Standards for organic inputs- plant protection.
 Organic crop production practices:
4. Organic crop production methods- rice, coconut.
5. Organic crop production methods- vegetables- okra, amaranthus, cucurbits.
6. Livestock component in organic farming.
7. Sustainable Agriculture-Apiculture, Mushroom cultivation.
Unit- IV: Organic Certification (15hrs)
1. Farm economy: Basic concept of economics- demand &supply, economic
viability of a farm.
2. Basic production principles, reducing expenses, ways to increase returns, cost ofproduction system. Benefit/ cost ratio, marketing, imports and exports.
3. Policies and incentives of organic production.
4. Farm inspection and certification.

5. Terrace farming.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE
Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture.
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit I: Nursery: (15hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives, scope and building up of infrastructure for nursery.
2. Planning and seasonal activities - Planting - direct seeding and transplants.
3. Nursery Management and Routine Garden Operations.
Unit II: Gardening Propagation methods (12 hrs.)
1. Definition, objectives and scope - different types of gardening.
2. Landscape and home gardening - parks and its components, plant materials and
design .
3. Computer applications in landscaping.
4. Gardening operations: soil laying, manuring, watering.
5. Landscaping Places of Public Importance: Landscaping highways and
Educational Institutions)
6. Some Famous gardens of India.
 Propagation methods (15hrs.)
7 Sowing/raising of seeds and seedlings, transplanting of seedlings. 8.Airlayering,
cutting, selection of cutting ,propagule collecting season, treatment of
cutting rooting medium and planting of cuttings - Hardening of plants.
8. Propagation of ornamental plants by rhizomes, corms tubers, bulbs and bulbils.
9 .Green house - mist chamber, shed root, shade house and glass house for
propagation.
Unit III: Floriculture: ( 15 hrs.)
1. Ornamental Plants: Flowering annuals; herbaceous, perennials; Divine vines;
Shade and ornamental trees.
2. Ornamental bulbous and foliage plants; Cacti and succulents.
3. Ornamentals-palms.
4. Cultivation of plants in pots; Indoor gardening; Bonsai.
Unit IV: Commercial Floriculture ( 15 hrs.)
1. Factors affecting flower production; Production and packaging of cut flowers;
Flower arrangements; Methods to prolong vase life of flowers
2. Cultivation of Important cut flowers (Carnation, Aster, Dahlia, Gerbera,
Anthuriams, Gladiolous, Marigold, Rose, Lilium)
3. Management of pests, diseases and harvesting.
4. Methods of harvesting.


 CLUSTER ELECTIVES (Cluster–A or Cluster-B)
III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VI
Paper VIII, CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Cluster-A,
Paper VIII-A-1 : PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
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Unit- I: Plant diversity and its scope Loss of biodiversity,: (15hrs)
i. Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Plant diversity at the ecosystem level,
Agro biodiversity and cultivated plant taxa, wild taxa.
ii. Values and uses of biodiversity: Ethical and aesthetic values, iii.
Methodologies for valuation, Uses of plants.
 Loss of biodiversity:
iii. Loss of genetic diversity, Loss of species diversity, Loss of ecosystem diversity,
Loss of agro biodiversity, projected scenario for biodiversity loss
iv. Management of plant biodiversity: Organizations associated with biodiversity,management-Methodology for execution-IUCN, UNEP, UNESCO, WWF, NBPGR;Biodiversity legislation(Out lines) and conservations, Biodiversity information management andcommunication. (Out lines)
Unit-II: Contemporary practices in resource management: (12hrs)
i. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Geographical Information
System GIS, Participatory resource appraisal, Ecological footprint(green account)
with emphasis on carbon footprint, Resource accounting;
ii. Solid and liquid waste management
Unit -III: Conservation of biodiversity (12hrs)
i. Conservation of genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem
diversity, In situ and ex situ conservation,
ii. Social approaches to conservation, Biodiversity awareness
programmes, Sustainable development.
Unit- IV: Role of plants in relation to Human Welfare (12hrs)
i. Importance of forestry, their utilization and commercial aspectsa)
Avenue trees, b) ornamental plants of India. c) Alcoholic
beverages through ages.
ii. Fruits and nuts: Important fruit crops their commercial importance.
Wood, fiber and their uses.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUSSEMESTER- VIII : CLUSTER ELECTIVE -A
Paper VIII-A-2 : ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit –I: Ethnobotany, Role of ethnobotany in modern Medicine (15hrs)
i. Introduction, concept, scope and objectives; Ethnobotany as an
interdisciplinary science. The relevance of ethnobotany in the
present context
ii. Major and minor ethnic groups or Tribals of India, and their life
styles.
iii. Plants used by the tribal populations: a) Food plants, b) intoxicants
and beverages, c) Resins and oils and miscellaneous uses.
iv. Role of ethnobotany in modern medicine with special example
Rauvolfia sepentinaTrichopus zeylanicusArtemisia
annua, Withania somnifera.
V.Significance of the following plants in ethno botanical practices
(along with their habitat and morphology)
a) Azadirachta indica, b) Ocimum sanctum, c) Vitex negundo, d)
Gloriosa superba, e) Tribulus terrestris, f) Phyllanthus niruri , g) Cassia
auriculata, h) Indigofera tinctoria , i) Senna auriculata j).Curcuma longa
Unit -II: Ethnobotany as a tool to protect interests of ethnic groups(15)
i.Role of ethnic groups in the conservation of plant genetic
resources.
ii. Medico-ethnobotanical sources in India
iii. Sharing of wealth concept with few examples from India.
iv. Biopiracy, Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge.
Unit -III: History, Scope and Importance of Medicinal Plants.
indigenous Medicinal Sciences (15hrs)
i. Definition and Scope-Ayurveda: History, origin,
panchamahabhutas, saptadhatu and tridosha concepts,
Rasayana, plants used in ayurvedic treatments.
ii. Siddha: Origin of Siddha medicinal systems, Basis of Siddha
system, plants used in Siddha medicine.
iii. Unani: History, concept: Umoor-e- tabiya, tumors treatments/
therapy, polyherbal formulations (in brief).
Unit -IV: Conservation of endangered and endemic medicinal plants:
(15hrs)
i. Definition: endemic and endangered medicinal plants,
ii. Red list criteria
iii. In situ conservation: Biosphere reserves, sacred groves,
National Parks
iv. Ex situ conservation: Botanical Gardens.

III B. Sc - BOTANY SYLLABUS SEMESTER- VIII
CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Paper VIII-A-3
Paper VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week
Unit-I: Pharmacognosy (15hrs)
i.Definition, Importance, Classification of drugs - Chemical and
Pharmacological, Drug evaluation methods
2.Organoleptic and microscopic studies with reference to nature of
active principles and common adulterants of Alstonia scholaris
(bark), Adhatoda vasica(leaf), Strychnos nuxvomica (seed), Rauwolfia
serpentina(root) and Zinziber officinalis Catharanthus roseus.
Unit-II: Secondary Metabolites: (15hrs)
i. Definition of primary and secondary metabolites and their differences, major types -
terpenes, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids.
ii. A brief idea about extraction of alkaloids.Origin of secondary metabolites – detailed
account of acetate pathway, mevalonate pathway, shikimate pathway.
UNIT-III: Phytochemistry: (15hrs)
Biosynthesis and sources of drugs:
(i) Phenols and phenolic glycosides : structural types, biosynthesis, importance of simple
phenolic compounds, tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins and furanocoumarins,
flavones and related flavonoid glycosides, anthocyanins, betacyanins, stilbenes,
lignins and lignans).
(ii) Steroids, sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, cucurbitacins:
Biosynthesis, commercial importance.
(iii) Alkaloids: Different groups, biosynthesis, bioactivity.
(v) Volatile oils, aromatherapy.
UNIT-IV: Enzymes, proteins and amino acids as drugs: (15hrs)
i. Vaccines, toxins and toxoids, antitoxins, immune globulins, antiserums,
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ii. Vitamins, Antibiotics – chemical nature, mode of action.
iii. Pharmacological action of plant drugs – tumor inhibitors, PAF antagonists,
antioxidants, phytoestrogens and others.

iv. Role of different enzyme inhibitors.

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